Table Of Contents

Beyond the North-South Fork on the Road to AI Governance:

An Action Plan for Democratic & Distributive Integrity*

* Acknowledging that the categories of South and North are not watertight, this paper argues for situating geopolitical and geo-economic power within the history of post-colonial development.


Acemoglu, D., & Restrepo, P. (2020). The Wrong Kind of AI? Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Labour Demand. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 13 (1), 25–35.

Ahmed, S. I., Haque, M., Guha, S., Rifat, M. R., & Dell, N. (2017). Privacy, Security, and Surveillance in the Global South: A Study of Biometric Mobile SIM Registration in Bangladesh. the 2017 CHI Conference.

Aizenberg, E., & van den Hoven, J. (2020, July). Designing for human rights in AI. Big Data & Society,

Allmann, K. & Radu, R. (forthcoming). Missteps on the path to digitizing welfare: ‘digital footprints’ as access currency for e-government services. Global Policy.

Barsotti, S. (2018). Weaponizing Social Media: Heinz Experts On Troll Farms And Fake News. Retrieved from Heinz College of Information Systems and Public Policy:

Bissio, R. (2018). Spotlight on Sustainable Development 2018. Civil Society Report, IT for Change.

Bradshaw, S., & Howard, P. N. (2019). 2019 Global Inventory of Organised Social Media Manipulation. The Computational Propaganda Project at the Oxford Internet Institute.

Bughin, J., Seong, J., Manyika, J., Chui, M., & Joshi, R. (2018). Notes From the AI Frontier: Modeling The Impact Of AI On The World Economy. Discussion Paper, McKinsey Global Institute.

Bughin, J., Seong, J., Manyika, J., Hämäläinen, L., Windhagen, E., & Hazan, E. (2019). Notes From the AI Frontier: Tackling Europe’s Gap in Digital and AI. Discussion Paper, McKinsey Global Institute.

Cave, S., & Kanta, D. (2020). The Whiteness of AI. Philosophy & Technology, 33, 685-703.

Christchurch Call. (2019). Christchurch Call. Retrieved from

Clarke, L. (2021, April 22). UN countries agreed to a more peaceful cyberspace – but it won’t stop state-sponsored attacks. Retrieved from TechMonitor:

Dasgupta , B. (2021, October 23). Twitter says its algorithm amplifies right wing political content. Retrieved from Hindustan Times:

Datysoc. (2020, November 17). Organizaciones de la sociedad civil y académicas expresan su preocupación por reconocimiento facial en el Proyecto de Ley de Presupuesto de Uruguay. Retrieved from Datysoc:

Dehingia, N., Lundgren, R., Dey, A., & Raj, A. (2021). Trends in online misogyny before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: Analysis of Twitter data from five South-Asian countries. Center on Gender Equity and Health, University of California San Diego.

Elliot, V., Christopher, N., Deck, A., & Schwartz, L. (2021, October 26). The Facebook Papers reveal staggering failures in the Global South. Retrieved from Rest Of World:

Eubanks, V. (2018). The Digital Poorhouse. Retrieved from Harper’s Magazine:

Feijóo, C., Kwon, Y., Bauer, J., Bohlin, E., Howell, B., Jain, R., . . . Xia, J. (2020). Harnessing artificial intelligence (AI) to increase wellbeing for all: The case for a new technology diplomacy. Telecommunications Policy, 44 (6).

Feldstein, S. (2019). The Global Expansion of AI Surveillance. Working Paper, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Fia, T. (2021). An Alternative to Data Ownership: Managing Access to Non-Personal Data through the Commons. Global Jurist, 21 (1), 181-210.

Fukuda-Parr, S., & Gibbons, E. (2021). Emerging Consensus on ‘Ethical AI’: Human Rights Critique of Stakeholder Guidelines. Global Policy, 12, 32-44.

Greco, M. (2021, October 7). What Biden Needs to Say About Surveillance Tech and Foreign Policy. Retrieved from Just Security:

Gurumurthy, A., & Chami, N. (2019). The Wicked Problem of AI Governance. Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung India Office. Artificial Intelligence in India.

Gurumurthy, A., & Chami, N. (2021, May 3). Towards a Global Digital Constitutionalism: A Radical New Agenda for UN75. Development, 64, 29-38.

Gurumurthy, A., & Chami, N. (2021). Governing the Abstract Object of Data: Towards a Distributive Integrity Framework. IT for Change.

Gurumurthy, A., Bharthur, D., Chami , N., Vipra, J., & Anwar, I. A. (2019). Platform Planet: Development in the Intelligence Economy. IT for Change.

Haas, L., & Gießler, S. (2020, April 28). Retrieved from Algorithm Watch:

IFF. (2020). Introduction to Facial Recognition Projects in India. Retrieved from Internet Freedom Foundation:

James, W. (2021, October 22). G7 countries reach breakthrough on digital trade and data. Retrieved from Reuters:

Lacker, K. (2021, October 25). Thoughts On AI Risk. Retrieved from Kevin Lacker’s blog:

Lee, K.-F. (2018). AI superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the new world order. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Lekabe, T. (2021, April 23). AfriForum wants assurance on Sanral facial recognition tech. Retrieved from TheCitizen:

Lyons, K. (2021, October 17). Facebook disputes report that its AI can’t detect hate speech or violence consistently. Retrieved from The Verge:

Marczak, B., Scott-Railton, J., McKune, S., Abdul Razzak, B., & Deibert, R. (2018). Hide and seek: tracking NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware to operations in 45 countries. Citizen Lab Research Report. No. 113, University of Toronto.

Mhlambi, S. (2020). From Rationality to Relationality: Ubuntu as an Ethical and Human Rights Framework for Artificial Intelligence Governance. Carr Center for Human Rights Policy.

Mohamed, S., Png, M.-T., & Isaac, W. (2020). Decolonial AI: Decolonial Theory as Sociotechnical Foresight in Artificial Intelligence. Philosophy & Technology, 33, 659-684.

Muchiri, C. W. (2020). Impact of Artificial Intelligence on IP Policy: Call for Comments- Response from a Global South Perspective. Strathmore Law School.

Network Rights Coalition. (2019, November 27). IGF 2019: Open Letter. Retrieved from Coalizão Direitos na Rede:

Network Rights Coalition. (2020, November 17). Open Letter from Brazilian Civil Society on the occasion of the 15th edition of the United Nations Internet Governance Forum. Retrieved from Coalizão Direitos na Rede:

Neudert, L.-M., & Howard, P. (2019, November 18). Online politics needs to be cleaned up – but not just by Facebook and Twitter, say Oxford academics. Retrieved from Oxford Internet Institute:

New America. (2021, June 3). Civil Rights Concerns Regarding Law Enforcement Use of Face Recognition Technology. Retrieved from New America:

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2021, March 23). Report: Online hate increasing against minorities, says expert.

Ördén, H., & Pamment, J. (2021). What Is So Foreign About Foreign Influence Operations? Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Pandey, P. (2020, August 3). One year since the Christchurch Call to Action: A Review. ORF Issue Brief(389).

Paz, A. W. (2021, July 7). We need to regulate mind-reading tech before it exists. Retrieved from Rest Of World:

Privacy International. (2020, November 10). Here’s how a well-connected security company is quietly building mass biometric databases in West Africa with EU aid funds. (International Privacy) Retrieved from Privacy International:

Privacy International. (2021, August). Civil Society Groups: Live Facial Recognition Technology should not be used in public spaces. Retrieved from Privacy International:

Radu, R. (2021). Steering the governance of artificial intelligence: national strategies in perspective. Policy and Society, 40 (2), 178-193.

Rao, A., & Verweij, G. (2017). Sizing the prize What’s the real value of AI for your business and how can you capitalise? PWC.

Report of the Secretary-General. (2020). Roadmap for Digital Cooperation. United Nations.

Risse, M. (2021). Artificial Intelligence and the Past, Present, and Future of Democracy. Discussion Paper, Carr Center for Human Rights Policy.

Rizk, N. (2019). Artificial Intelligence and Inequality in the Middle East: The Political Economy of Inclusion. The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of AI.

Schwartz, A., & Sheard, N. (2021, January 20). Why EFF Doesn’t Support Bans On Private Use of Face Recognition. Retrieved from Electronic Frontier Foundation:

Secretary-General. (2019). Report of the Special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights. Advance Unedited Version.

Ulnicane, I., Knight, W., Leach, T., Stahl, B. C., & Wanjiku, W.-G. (2021). Framing governance for a contested emerging technology:insights from AI policy. Policy and Society, 40 (2), 158-177.

UNCTAD. (2021). Digital Economy Report 2021.

UNCTAD. (2019). Digital Economy Report 2019.

UNCTAD. (2021). Technology and Innovation Report.

Vincent, J. (2021, April 21). EU outlines wide-ranging AI regulation, but leaves the door open for police surveillance. Retrieved from The Verge:

WSIS Executive Secretariat. (2006). “Report of the Tunis phase of the World Summit on the Information Society, Tunis, Kram Palexpo, 16-18 November 2005.”

Zuboff, S. (2019). The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power. PublicAffairs.